A minor parlour game for BigLaw cognoscenti is the question of which city will be the next world capital of law. New York has held the unofficial title for many years, although London made a powerful case throughout the 2000s. Down the road, who knows? Maybe Hong Kong or Shanghai, possibly New Delhi or Mumbai; real outliers might include Singapore or Rio De Janeiro. And of course, don’t count out London or NYC retaining the crown.
Allow me to suggest, however, that some of the future capitals of law have already been nominated. Here are seven worth considering, in alphabetical order:
- Belfast, Northern Ireland
- Carrollton, Texas
- Dayton, Ohio
- Fargo, North Dakota
- Hamilton, Ontario
- Overland Park, Kansas
- Wheeling, West Virginia
These seven cities, of course, are home to low-cost law offices or legal outsourcing facilities, many of which have just opened or are in rapid growth stages. More specifically:
- Belfast is home to back-office outsourcing centers for major UK firms Allen & Overy and Herbert Smith.
- Carrollton is a Dallas suburb recently announced as the first stateside Pangea3 office to open under Thomson Reuters management.
- Dayton was chosen by WilmerHale as its “onshore” headquarters for middle- and back-office legal support.
- Fargo has been the US host city for LPO provider Integreon for several years now (and in the UK, Bristol).
- Hamilton is home to high-efficiency mortgage foreclosure and collections services for Canadian firm Gowlings. (PDF)
- Overland Park is currently consolidating its status as worldwide headquarters for LPO firm UnitedLex.
- And Wheeling started the whole trend in 2005 when Orrick outsourced its low-cost back-office functions there.
These law firms and companies are choosing these locations not just because of lower costs, but also because of good-quality legal talent in the area and proximity to transportation hubs. Skeptics who complain they’ve never heard of Carrollton or Overland Park should remember that no one used to know where Bentonville is, either. If our clients are in smaller regional locations, why shouldn’t we be there as well?
This is by no means an exhaustive list, of course — many Indian cities host legal outsourcing operations, and similar entities can be found in South Africa, New Zealand and Australia. But two factors in particular are marking many of these operations as a whole new animal. The first is closer physical proximity to law firms’ national headquarters — “onshoring,” if you like, as opposed to “offshoring.” This approach to outsourcing has long had political and public relations benefits — opening plants in Tennessee rather than Tianjin pays numerous dividends — but as wages in previous outsourcing hotspots start to rise, the cost gap is narrowing and other non-financial factors are coming into play.
The second element, though, is more interesting. Increasingly, these outsourcing centers aren’t just low-cost “drudge” work outposts — they’re growth engines. Orrick’s Wheeling office has increased from 75 people to 350 in the last two years alone, while Allen & Overy aims to have 50 fee earners join 250 support staff in Belfast by 2014. Pangea3, as this New York Times article points out, is busily hiring lawyers in the United States, which is more than a lot of U.S. law firms can say. These cities look like new magnets for legal talent in the 2010s and maybe beyond.
These legal jobs are for so-called “second-tier associates,” but the reality behind that insulting label is this: these jobs do work that isn’t extremely challenging and needn’t be performed in global financial centers. These jobs and their lower salaries are perfectly calibrated to the value of the work they produce. They aren’t based in New York or London because, as firms have been painfully learning the past few years, clients won’t pay the rates required to sustain mid-range jobs in high-priced locations. (And as the grim statistics make clear, new lawyers are paying the price for this change.) These jobs are in Dayton and Wheeling because that’s how much they’re worth, and there’s nothing the least bit wrong with that.
What we’re looking at here is the unbundling of law firms: the disassembly of the once-mighty law firm talent block into discrete groups of lawyers and para-professionals based in various locations to carry out several types of legal work in ways better aligned with its value. Law firms and legal enterprises are heading towards a hub-and-spoke model: small but focused strategic headquarters in a major financial center, revenue-producing satellites in a variety of lower-cost locations worldwide. Soon enough, we’ll look back and wonder why on earth a law firm ever kept all of its partners and all of its associates inside the walls of its major downtown office buildings.
It bears repeating: this is not a temporary, stop-gap response to tougher economic times and partner profitability demands. This is the beginning of a fundamental change in how law firms carry out the work their clients send them. Ron Friedmann, in a wide-ranging post that takes in both these developments and the emergence of a “Top 23” in the AmLaw 100 (related developments, Ron thinks, and I agree), puts it plainly: “As more work moves to an AFA basis, firms will have to examine how the work itself is done: they will need to minimize time spent on matters to protect and grow profits. Wasting time on repeatable, wheel-reinventing matters simply makes no economic sense.”
This isn’t really about outsourcing, although LPOs have played an invaluable catalytic role in this process. This isn’t about new lawyers getting stuck in low-paying jobs, although my heart goes out to law school graduates caught in the breakdown between the old system and the new one. And this isn’t about partners being greedy — or at least, no more than it ever was and no less than should be expected and encouraged from equity shareholders in a business enterprise. This is about how legal work is priced and delivered in a newly competitive marketplace. That’s the prism through which you should examine almost everything currently happening in the law, including the emergence of some unlikely new capitals.
Jordan Furlong speaks to law firms and legal organizations throughout North America on how to survive and profit from the extraordinary changes underway in the legal services marketplace. He is a partner with Edge International and a senior consultant with Stem Legal Web Enterprises.